Akwa Ibom is a state in Nigeria named after the Qua Iboe river. It is located in the coastal South-Southern part of the country, lying between latitudes 4°321 and 5°331 North, and longitudes 7°251 and 8°251 East. The State is bordered on the east by Cross River State, on the west by Rivers State and Abia State, and on the South by the Atlantic Ocean and the southernmost tip of Cross River State. Akwa Ibom is one of Nigeria’s 36 states with a population of over 5 million people and more than 10 million people in diaspora. It was created in 1987 from the former Cross River State and is currently the highest oil and gas producing state in the country. The state’s capital is Uyo with over 500,000 inhabitants . Akwa Ibom has an airport (Akwa Ibom International Airport) and two major sea ports on the Atlantic Ocean with a proposed construction of a world class seaport Ibaka Seaport at Oron. The State also boasts of a 30,000 seater ultra modern sports complex. Akwa Ibom state is home to the Ibom E-Library, a world class information center.[3] Along with English, the main spoken languages are IbibioAnnangEket and Oron language.

Major cities

UyoEketIkot EkpeneOronAbakIkot AbasiIkono,[4] Etinan

Local Government Areas

Akwa Ibom State consists of thirty-one (31) Local Government Areas. They are:

LGA

Website

Abak

[1]

Eastern Obolo

[2]

Eket

[3]

Esit-Eket

[4]

Essien Udim

[5]

Etim-Ekpo

[6]

Etinan

[7]

Ibeno

[8]

Ibesikpo-Asutan

[9]

Ibiono-Ibom

[10]

Ika

[11]

Ikono

[12]

Ikot Abasi

[13]

Ikot Ekpene

[14]

Ini

[15]

Itu

[16]

Mbo

[17]

Mkpat-Enin

[18]

Nsit-Atai

[19]

Nsit-Ibom

[20]

Nsit-Ubium

[21]

Obot-Akara

[22]

Okobo

[23]

                                               

Onna

[24]

                                               

Oron

[25]

                                               

Oruk Anam

[26]

                                               

Ukanafun

[27]

                                               

Udung-Uko

[28]

                                               

Uruan

[29]

                                               

Urue-Offong/Oruko

[30]

                                               

Uyo

[31]

                                               

History

The region of the State was created out of Cross River State on September 23, 1987.

Demography

The people are predominantly of the Christian faith. The main ethnic groups of the state are:

The Ibibio, Annang, Eket, who speak a dialect of the Ibibio Language, Oron and Obolo, comprising Ibono (Ibeno) and Eastern Obolo people, are the largest ethnic groups. The Oro [Oron] is an ethnic group similar to the Efik, which also speak a dialect of Ibibio language and predominant in neighbouring Cross River State, and found in five of the state's Local Government Areas. Located at the Atlantic Ocean seafront are the Eket, Ibeno and Eastern Obolo people. The Ibono have similarities with the Oro and Obolos. The Igbo language is also spoken in Akwa Ibom in the northern and western land borders. The Ibibio language belongs to the Benue–Congo language family, which forms part of the Niger–Congo group of languages. Despite the homogeneity, no central government existed among the people of what is now Akwa Ibom State prior to the British invasion in 1904. Instead, the AnnangOronEfik, Ibonos and Ibibio were all autonomous groups. Although several Scottish missionaries arrived in Calabar in 1848, and Ibono in 1887, the British did not firmly establish control until 1904. In that year, the Enyong Division was created encompassing the area of the current state of Akwa Ibom, with the headquarters at Ikot Ekpene, an Annang city emerged described by the noted Africanist Kaanan Nair, as the cultural and political capital of Annang and Ibibio. The creation of Enyong Division, for the first time allowed the numerous ethnic groups to come together. This further provided a venue for the creation of the Ibibio Welfare Union, later renamed Ibibio State Union. The social organization was first organized as a local development and improvement forum for educated persons and groups who were shut out from the colonial administration in 1929. Nonetheless, some historians have wrongly pointed to the union to buttress their argument about the homogeneity of groups in the area.[citation needed] The Obolo Union comprising Ibono and Andoni stock was another strong socioeconomic and cultural Organisation that thrived in the region. The Ibono people have fought wars to maintain their unique identity and territory in the region more than any other group. When Akwa Ibom state was created in 1987, Uyo was chosen as the state capital to spread development to all regions of the state.

Education

The current region of Akwa Ibom State in old Calabar Kingdom were the first to encounter Western education in Nigeria with the establishment of Hope Waddell Training Institute, Calabar in 1895, Methodist Boys High School, Oron in 1905 and other top flight schools such as the Holy Family College at Abak and Regina Coeli College, Essene. Currently various institutions for higher education have sprung up and spread across the state. Some Educational Institutes in the state include:

Politics

Politics in Akwa Ibom state is dominated by the three main ethnic groups, the IbibioAnnang and Oron. Of these three, the Ibibio remain the majority and have held sway in the state since its creation.

 


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·   Amnesty International. Nigeria: Petroleum Pollution and Poverty in the Niger Delta”. ”. United Kingdom: Amnesty International Publications International Secretariat, 2009. p. 10.

 

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·   Access and Utilization of Modern Health Care Facilities in the Petroleum-producing Region of Nigeria: The Case of Bayelsa State By Andrew G. Onokerhoraye

 

·   Barnett, J. R. (1984), “Equity, Access and Resource Allocation: Planning Hospitals Services in New Zealand” Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 18, pp.981-989.

 

·   Burne, W. (1959), “Inequality, Inefficiency and Spatial Injustice” Annual Meeting , Association of American Geographers, Kansas (mimeo).

 

·   Christaller, W. (1966) (Translated by Baskin, C. W) The Central Places of Southern Germany, Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice Hall.

 

·   Mosely, M. J. (1979) Accessibility: the Rural Challenge, London: Methuen and Co.

 

·   Okafor, S. I. (1978), “Inequalities in the Distribution of Health Care Facilities in Nigeria”

 

·   Akhator, R.A. (ed.) Health and Disease in Tropical Africa: Geographical and Medical Viewpoints, London: Harwood.

 

·   Onokerhoraye, A.G (1970), Okitipupa as an Urban Centre in Okitipupa Division, Ibadan: Original Essay, Department of Geography, University of Ibadan.

 

·   Onokerhoraye, A. G. (1976a) “A Suggested Framework for the Provision of Health Facilities in Nigeria”, Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 10, 1976.

 

·   Onokerhoraye, A. G. (1976b), “A Conceptual Framework for the Location of Public Services in the Urban Areas of Developing Countries: The Nigerian Case”, Socio-Economic Planning Science, Vol. 10, pp. 237-240.

 

·   Onokerhoraye, A.G. (1978), “Spatial Aspects of the Health Care Problem in Nigeria: A Case Study of Kwara State”, Quarterly Journal of Administration, Vol.12, pp.241-255.

 

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·   NDEBUMOG - MEMORANDUM ON THE PETROLEUM INDUSTRY BILL (PIB) 2009

 

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