According to the 1952 Census Report, the ljaws of the Niger Delta region have been recognized as one of the ten major ethnic groups with a population of 0.9 million. During the colonial administration, a separate province was created for them. The amalgamation of Southern and Northern Protectorates in 1914 triggered the fear among minority ethnic groups of political domination; hence their agitation for a distinct state comprising the old Brass, Degema and Western ljaw Divisions, under the umbrella of ljaw National Group, started in earnest. During the colonial period, Britain signed many treaties of protection with the chiefs of many coastal communities, especially the ljaws, with the hope that at Nigeria’s independence in 1960, a nation state would be created for them.

 Between 1941 and 1956, many nationalist movements were formed mainly to establish ljaw political sovereignty. They pressed the issue of separate political sovereignty before the Willink Commission 1958. In order to allay the fears of the ethnic minorities, the Willink Commission recommended the establishment of the Niger Delta Development Board (NDDB) to tackle the problems of underdevelopment of the area, environmental neglect and political domination. Despite the establishment of the Board, the agitation for state creation, based on the above stated problems, continued until the military wrested political power and control of Nigeria from civilians on 15th January 1966.

 In February 1966, Isaac Boro, an ljaw man from Kaiama town in Bayelsa State, with Sam Owonaro, Nottingham Dick and thousands of their supporters unilaterally proclaimed a “Niger Delta Peoples Republic.” But the Federal Government brought the rebellion to a sudden end. On May 27, 1967, the then Rivers State (which was made up the present Rivers and Bayelsa States) was created.

Agitation for a separate State continued among the ljaws and some of the reasons given included: environmental degradation occasioned by oil exploration and exploitation; continued neglect of the economic development of the area, political marginalization et cetera. The area is currently among the least developed in the country, lacking any form of developmental amenity and infrastructure.

Administrative Areas: At inception, the state had three local government areas namely Brass, Yenagoa and Sagbama. The name Bayelsa is an acronym formed from the names of the three LGAs. in Bayelsa State operated on eight LGAs until 28th to December 1999 when additional twenty four LGAs were created by the first executive civilian governor of the state. The state has several towns and villages around which an indigenous administrative framework is built and local resources are my mobilized.

 Administrative Structure: There are three arms of government in Bayelsa State and these include: The Executive Council of the Legislature and The Judiciary. The Executive Council is made up of the Governor, Deputy Governor, Commissioners, Special Advisers and the Secretary to the State Government. The commissioners are the accounting officers for each of the ministries, while the permanent secretaries oversee the daily activities in their ministries.

 The parastatals are special organs of the government charged with the establishment and running of certain key economic areas of the state government. They are supervised by the Deputy Governor. The Governor has Special Advisers on education, special duties, information community affairs, et cetera.

 

The Legislature (Bayelsa State House of Assembly) is made up of elected members and it is the law-making body for the state. The Speaker of the House is the chairman in all the proceedings. The Judiciary is the body that interprets the law in the state. It is headed by the state Chief Judge. The second tier of Government in the state is the Local Government.

On 20th of December 1999, the state was further subdivided into thirty-two LGAs. Each LGA is headed by a chairman run by the executive and the legislature. The LGA is the grassroots government, being the nearest to the people. Each community of the state has a traditional head while the State Council of Chiefs is headed by the most accepted elderly person. The traditional institutions are hierarchical.

 

PHYSICAL SETTING 

Location: The state is geographically located within latitude 4°15′ North and latitude 5°23′ south. It is also within longitudes 5°22′ West and 6°45′ East. The state is bounded by Delta State on the north, Rivers State on the east and the Atlantic Ocean on the western and southern parts.

Geology: Bayelsa State is located within the lower delta plain believed to have been formed during the Holocene of the quaternary period by the accumulation of sedimentary deposits. The major geological characteristic of the state is sedimentary alluvium. The entire state is formed of abandoned beach ridges and due to many tributaries of the River Niger in this plain, considerable geological changes still abound.

 Soils: The major soil types in the state are young, shallow, poorly drained soils (inceptisol Aquepts) and acid sulphate soils (Sulphaquepts). There are variations in the soils of Bayelsa State; some soil types occupy extensive areas whereas others are of limited extent. However, based on physiographic differences, several soil units could be identified in the state. These include:

•    The soils of the high-lying levees e.g. sandy loam, loamy sandy, and silty loamy soils as well as sands;

•    The soils of the low-lying leaves e.g. the moderately fine texture, red silty or clay loamy soils;

•    The meander belt soils which differ only slightly from the soils of the levels.

•    The silted river belt soils e.g. peat for clay water bogged soils found mainly in the beds of dead creeks and streams.

•    The basin soils e.g. silky clay loam or sandy loam which are inundated by water for most of the year;

•    The transition zone soils e.g. silt and sandy silt which are known to be under the daily influence of tidal floods and fresh waters. There are pockets of potash deficiency especially in the sandy soils. The texture of majority of the soils range from medium to fine grains.

Relief: Generally, Bayelsa State is a lowland state characterized by tidal flats and coastal beaches, beach ridge barriers and flood plains. The net features such as cliffs and lagoons are the dominant relief features of the state. The fact that the state lies between the upper and lower Delta plain of the Niger Delta suggests a low-lying relief. The broad plain is gentle-sloping. The height or elevation decreases downstream. There are numerous streams of varying volumes and velocities in the united state. These include Rivers Nun, Ekoli, Brass, Koluama, etc.

 Climate and Vegetation: Rainfall in Bayelsa State varies in quantity from one area to another. The state experiences equatorial type of climate in the southern the most part and tropical rain towards the northern parts. Rain occurs generally every month of the year with heavy downpour.

The state experiences high rainfall but this decrease from south to north. Akassa town in the state has the highest rainfall record in Nigeria. The climate is tropical i.e. wet and the dry season. The amount of rainfall is adequate for all-year-round crop production. The wet season is not less than 340 days.

The mean monthly temperature is in the range are of 25°C to 31°C. Mean maximum monthly temperatures range from 26°C to 31°C. The mean annual temperature is uniform for the entire Bayelsa State. The hottest months are December to April. The difference between the wet season and dry season on temperatures is about 2°C at the most. Relative humidity is high in the state throughout the year and decreases slightly in the dry season.

 Like any other state in the Niger Delta, the vegetation of Bayelsa State is composed of four ecological logical zones. These include: coastal barrier island forests, mangrove forests, freshwater swamp e.g. forests and lowland rain forests. These different or vegetation types are associated with the various soil units in the area, and they constitute part of the complex Niger Delta ecosystems. Parts of the fresh water swamp forests in the state constitute the home of several threatened and even endangered for plant and animal species.

 There are coastal barrier highland forests and mangrove forests. Coastal barrier highland forest vegetation is restricted to the narrow ridges along the coast. This vegetation belt is characterised by low salinity-tolerant fresh water plants. Sometimes of the Avicinia species of mangroves prevail in this vegetation.

 Palms such as phoenix reclivata and other species such as Uapacia, Xylopia and land Taminalia are predominant. In this belt, commercial timber species are found. The mangrove vegetation of the state is usually found between mid-tide relief levels to extreme high-water mark. This vegetation linked with the brackish swamps which form a maze of water courses and highlands affected by the ebb and flow of tides.

 Ecological Problems: Bayelsa State is one of the states within the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. This region has been described as “a region of physical handicap which is unlikely ever to be highly developed”. The region is a low-lying plain riddled with an intricate system of water channels through which the Niger finds its way into the sea. The state has very difficult terrain that constrains settlement development or expansion, accessibility to settlement sites and exploitation of natural resources.

 

Human activities are largely determined by natural conditions and other ecological opportunities. These hostile ecological conditions limit the occupation of the people to fishing. Bayelsa is a region which already has too much surface water with a high rainfall and long rainy days. This poses considerable problems for human settlement and land use. Almost every part of the state is under water at one time of the year or another. Associated with high rainfall, long rainy days, porous and very sandy soils, is prolonged and disastrous flood. These flooding incidents lead to continual changing of river courses in the state and renders rivers useless as good channels of transportation.

They also have a tremendous influence on the pattern of human life and economic activities in the state. Highlands are dry throughout the year and can therefore be used as settlement sites and for agricultural practices are very limited. Inter-settlement movements in the state have been restricted because of poor road and water transport development. The available roads are those within the towns and villages.

 There is near total absence of inter-town links. The terrain of the state makes the development of land-based transportation difficult requiring the application of modem and costly technologies. Inter-state movement is restricted to water transport which is equally confronted with many problems. Exploitation of forest resources is equally constrained by the terrain of the region. The major ecological problems of the state are thus flooding, coastal erosion and pollution.

 

PEOPLE, POPULATION AND SETTLEMENT 

Ethnic Composition, Languages, Culture and the Arts: Bayelsa State is dominated by the ljaw ethnic group whose members speak ljaw language. Other ljaw dialects include Tamu, Mein, Jobu, Oyariri, and Tarakiri. There are other pockets of ethnic groups such as Urhobo and Isoko. There are local dialects in some places. Other notable languages in the State are Epie, Atisa, Nembe and Ogbia. Christianity and traditional religion are the two main religions in the State. The culture of the people is expressed in their unique dresses, festivals, dietary habits, arts and crafts, folklore and dancing. These distinguish the people from other ethnic groups. The major crafts include canoe building, fish net and fish traps making, pottery, basket and mat making. Cane furniture industry is thriving in the State.

 Population Structure and Distribution: According to the 1991 Nigerian population census, the total population of Bayelsa State was 1,121,693, distributed among the then eight local government areas. This was made up of 584,117 or 52.1 per cent males and 537,576 or 47.9 per cent females. The geographical constraints imposed by the limited dry land for settlements and agricultural practices, extensive mangrove swamps, excessive rainfall, prolonged and disastrous floods, and creek erosion, among others, underscore the population distribution pattern in the state. People are thinly scattered among “floating” settlements of villages and towns. The population concentration among LGAs ranges from 23.8 per cent in Southern ljaw, 14.2 per cent in Ogbia, through 11.1 per cent at Ekeremor to as low as 9.3 per cent in Yenagoa and 6.0 per cent in Kolokuma/Opukuma LGA . The geographical difficulties of the state and its neglect with respect to infrastructural provision and environmental degradation have limited inter-ethnic migration on a national scale in the State. There are few migrants, mostly raffia palm and oil palm tapers. The creation of Bayelsa State has however opened the state to Yoruba, lgbo and Hausa traders.

 Urban and Rural Development and Patterns of Human Settlement: As was noted earlier, Bayelsa State is one of the least developed states in Nigeria such that some of the ministries are yet to find adequate accommodation for offices and for housing key staff; no settlement or LGA is served by the National Electric Power Authority (NEPA) and only a gas turbine supplies power to parts of Yenagoa; portable water is no where available in the state while small-scale industries are to be found in only a few settlements. The low-level of development in the state is traceable to the settlement pattern and ecological constraints. Bayelsa State is a state of numerous villages and rural settlements that are scattered and isolated from each other. Twenty five per cent of the state population live in “Urban villages” such as Ogbia, Oloibiri, Ogbolomabiri, Bassambiri, Okpuama, Twon-Brass and Nembe. Other important settlements include Yenagoa, Ofoni, Odi, Kaiama, Amassoma, Oporoma, Olugbobiri and Ekeremor.

 The population of each of these towns is above 10,000 and, with the newly created local government areas, all of them have been made local government headquarters. Out of a population of 1,121,493, only 280,280 live in urban centers, hence the very low urbanisation index of 0.25. However, urbanisation index is very high in Nembe (0.47) and Yenagoa (0.43), while it is lowest in southern ljaw (0.17). Settlements are built on patches of dry land, islands and levees.

The difficult environment makes it impossible to build access roads to link other settlements and thus constrain human economic activities and land use. Almost all the rural settlements are ‘floating hamlets’ i.e. built on mangrove swamps and thus constantly threatened by floods. On the whole, small villages and hamlets predominate in the state and this characteristic poses problems for economic development since urban centers are needed to provide propulsive growth to the neighbouring regions.

 Bayelsa State is a state of few towns and numerous isolated villages. Out of the sixty towns of 5000 persons and above, only two (Ogbolomabiri and Amassoma) record a population of 20,000 and above. These two settlements may be described as urban in so far as they have populations of 20,000 or more.

 By implication, Bayelsa State is not yet experiencing problems of urban primacy. But it has opportunity to rationally develop regional urban centers of different orders for efficient location /allocation of facilities and amenities that will benefit the cross-section of the state’s population. The non-existence of urban primacy in the state has led to even geographical spread of social facilities such as schools and hospitals among LGAs. Since small towns and villages (or hamlets) dominate the state, the absence of urban centers will no doubt pose problems for efficient economic development.

 

SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE

There is linear relationship between infrastructural facility provision and economic development between fifty-two and fifty-eight per cent of all secondary and primary schools in the state. The three LGAs are located in the central half of the state; they are Yenagoa, Southern ljaw and Ogbia. The state has no tertiary or post-secondary institution.

 

Health Facilities: The state is not adequately served with medical facilities. However, some LGAs such as Yenagoa, Southern ljaw and Ogbi are favorably served with medical facilities.

The three LGAs control 55.5 per cent, 72.2 per cen 43.8 per cent and 33.3 per cent of the state’s health clinics, maternity centers, primary health centreand hospitals respectively. However, Shell, and other oil prospecting companies have established medical centers to cater for their staff in various locations in the state.

 Electricity and Potable Water: These facilities are not sufficiently provided in the state in the no LGA is served by electricity supplied from the National Electricity Power Authority (NEPA) an none enjoys full access to pipe-borne water: Southern ljaw and Yenagoa are provided with light by a state run gas turbine.

 Transport and Communications: The major modes of transport in the state are waterways and roads. The state has many transport problems that have hindered its economic development for many years.

Water transport: The State, like any other state in the Niger Delta, is traversed by a network of River Niger’s distributaries, resulting in widespread swamp land. Water transport is therefore the main means of movement. Speed boat is the characteristic mode of transportation. The efficiency and capacity of speed boats is poor because they do not normally carry goods and they accommodate fewer passengers than out-board engine boats. The slowest means of travel is the out-board engine boat, while the in-board engine boat usually has the largest capacity (lkporukpo, 1986). Water transport in Bayelsa State is confronted with such problems as slowness, lack of safety, irregularity, lack of comfort, low efficiency and capacity, among others.

 There is need to develop efficient water transport; through the development of long swamp bridges that will link swamp settlements with upland areas and the outside world.

Road Transport: Road transport is poorly developed because of ecological problems as earlier identified.

 NATURAL RESOURCES AND DEVELOPMENT

 Agriculture and Forestry: Crop production in Bayelsa State is limited by the fact that much of the terrain is swampy and extensive areas of land are flooded for most of the year. In spite of these constraints, food crops grown in the state include yam, cocoyam, banana, pineapple and plantain, but the shortage of agricultural land consequent on the ecological circumstances and environmental degradation constrain commercial production of the crops.

Cash crops grown in the state include coconut, pears, oil palm and raffia palm. The potentialities for the development of these crops to feed local industries are very good. Technology should be developed to reclaim land from mangrove swamps in order to cultivate food, especially lowland rice and the cash crops identified above on a large, commercial scale.

Various species of tropical trees grow in both the mangrove and fresh water swamps. Rubber is an important cash crop in the drier northern part of the state. Several timber species provide material for canoe building which is an important industry since canoes are the only means of transportation in much of the state. There is need to exploit the state’s forest products for paper and pulp, timber, canoe and boat building, tooth picks etc., but exploitation is problematic because of poor access roads.

Fishing is the major occupation of Bayelsa people because of the abundant creeks, lagoons, rivers and swamps within which commercial fishing is practiced. Over 200 species of fish can be found in the waters within and around the state. Fish oil extraction is a common economic activity throughout all the LGAs of the state, and the coastal areas abound in sea foods such as fish, oysters, crabs, lobsters, periwinkle et cetera. There are also sea animals such as Hippopotamus, manatee, crocodile etc in the seas, rivers and streams that criss-cross the state.

 Minerals:

 Bayelsa State has the largest crude oil reserve in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. The state produces over 40 per cent of the country’s on-shore crude oil and vast quantities of associated gas. It also has large deposits of clay. Indeed the resources of the state are abundant but they have not been fully explored, exploited and utilized.

Local Sourcing of Raw Materials:

 Bayelsa State has been described as a state that holds good for future economic and industrial development. Given the state resource profile, it is evident that a wide range of raw materials can be sourced locally for the establishment of low, medium and large scales industries in the state.

 INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES

Economic Climate: Bayelsa State has a very bright economic future if plans for its development can be properly articulated and rigorously implemented, in an investor-friendly atmosphere. Based on the local resources outlined above, several industries can be developed. There is, as yet, little or no industrial manufacturing in the state.

Industrialization therefore, has the opportunity of being planned from a zero base such that its spatial redistribution would influence development positively throughout the state. Governments, since the creation of the state, did little or nothing to promote industrialization, but the first elected governor of the state has taken some steps towards providing a good investment climate that would woo investors to the state.

These steps include:

•    Development of housing estates in Yenagoa, Odi, Amassoma, Ogbia;

•    Development of industrial estates at Yenagoa and Odi;

•    Encouraging political harmony among ethnic groups and between migrants and the indigenes of the state;

•    Mass electrification of towns and villages of the state;

•    Provision of other basic socio-economic infrastructure;

•    Development of efficient inter-state links through land and water;

•    Identification of local industrial raw materials and invitation of local and foreign entrepreneurs to establish industries with forward and backward linkages in the state.

 The state a government has also laid other incentives for industrialists such as tax relief, tax holiday and capital allowance. All these constitute a comprehensive and attractive package for potential investors. The state government has a liberal investment policy aimed at encouraging potential and genuine entrepreneurs to participate in the infrastructural and industrial development of the state.

Industrial Potentialities:

The potentialities for industrial take-off of Bayelsa State are very bright, despite the present problem of transportation and communications, unreliable power supply, water, and other basic infrastructure. Agricultural products on which small to medium  scale industries could be established include palm oil, coconut, rubber; while the fishing industry a could concentrate on fish oil extraction, fish packaging/canning et cetera. Other farm products on which industries can be based are local gin distillery from raffia palm and palm wine tapping. However, the major areas for investments in agro -allied industrial development are as follows:

 a) Vegetable Oil extraction from coconut and palm kernels: This is an industrial investment area that has not been exploited in the state. Opportunities abound for production of fatty oil used in paint and soap manufacture; production of gin from raffia palm and palm wine is economically viable.

(b) Rubber: Production of such items as belts, inner tubes, tyres, pipes, mats and shoe heels and soles is economically feasible;

(c) ‘Ogbono': Production of Ogbono on a commercial scale is viable, but this area of trade has not been exploited.

(d) Timber: This can be exploited for the production of toilet rolls, corrugated boards for packaging, tooth picks, ice cream sticks and straw matting for packing.

(e) Ancillary Facilities for Fishing Industry: In fishing industry industrial opportunity exists, in addition to fish oil extraction, for ancillary industries such as fish net making, boat building and fish canning.

 Products from mineral based industries also offer wide opportunities for investments in the state. These encompass a wide range of industries contingent on crude oil, by-products of petroleum refining such as jelly greases, rubber products, floor tiles, tarpaulin and so on.

Bayelsa State is also potentially rich in recreational facilities, but much of these are yet to be developed to yield revenue for the state. The tourism potentials of the state rest on its beautiful coastal sandy beaches, numerous traditional festivals, long and winding streams and rivers as well as forests with their associated shrines and rich wildlife.

 

FUTURE PROSPECTS

The future development of Bayelsa State lies in industrialization that is compatible with both the physical terrain and the natural resource base of the state. Extensive floodplain and coastal commercial swamp rice cultivation would utilize cheap rural labor which need not necessarily come from Bayelsa State alone.

 Aquaculture should be promoted through extension services that can be provided by an appropriate research institute, to enable the production of commercial seafood. The available cheap energy supply in the form of natural gas should be harnessed for heavy industries like metal smelting, petrochemical and fertilizer production and oil refining, all aimed at the export market.

 The humid tropical environment of Bayelsa State, with strong atmosphere and surface water circulation, would minimize industrial pollution. Job creation through industrialization is the surest path to the sustainable economic development and modernization of Bayelsa State. The incentives offered to investors will attract development, urbanization and the expansion of the required, physical and social infrastructure.

 Social development in Bayelsa, however, should aim at the grassroots by providing basic health facilities; and opening opportunities through the universal basic education programme, for the betterment of the rural poor through nomadic, formal and non-formal educational programmes. Transportation in Bayelsa State is skeletal, risky and unreliable, given the largely riverine and remote physical setting. Government intervention is seriously and urgently needed in programmes akin to the Federal Urban Mass Transit Scheme.

This will enable inland waterway transporters and river craft operators to purchase vessels that will link all the communities in the State. Among the key road arteries most critically needed in Bayelsa State is the Mbiama-Yenagoa- Nembe-Brass highway, which cuts across the state from the inland parts of the coast.

 Proposed about two decades ago, this road has stopped only at Yenagoa, the state capital. To promote tourism, there is a need to extend this road to Brass on the Atlantic coast. Bayelsa State should generate electricity and supply to some other states of the country; in this regard, gas-fired turbines should be installed to harness the natural gas from the giant oil-fields in the state. Another project that has been in the pipeline for Bayelsa State, and was recently revisited is the Oloribiri Petroleum Museum and Research Institute: Now to be established as a national millennium site, this institution will be sponsored by the Federal Government to commemorate Oloribri as the first oil field in Nigeria.

 


 

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·   Proceedings of the Ibibio Union 1928-1937. Edited by Monday Efiong Noah. Mondern Business Press Ltd, Uyo.

·   News on the Niger Delta

·   Urhobo Historical Society (August 4, 2003). Urhobo Historical Society Responds to Itsekiri Claims on Warri City and Western Niger Delta.

·   Nigeria's agony dwarfs the Gulf oil spill. The US and Europe ignore it

·   The Right to Health- Fact Sheet No. 31 (WHO, OHCHR)

·    Article 13.2(a), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

·   Article 13.2(b), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

·   Article 13.2(c), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

·   A Human Rights-Based Approach to Education for AllUNESCO and UNICEF. 2007. pp. 7.

·    Article 26, Universal Declaration of Human Rights

·   Article 13, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

·   Article 14, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

·   European Social Charter, Article 10

·   THISDAY NEWSPAPER –Another Bold Tackle on Infant Mortality (01 Aug 2010)

·    Beiter, Klaus Dieter (2005). The Protection of the Right to Education by International Law. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. p. 19. ISBN 90-04-14704-7.

·   Beiter, Klaus Dieter (2005). The Protection of the Right to Education by International Law. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 226–227. ISBN 90-04-14704-7, 9789004147041.

·   "Right to education – What is it? Education and the 4 As". Right to Education project. Retrieved 2009-02-21.

·    "Right to education – What is it? Primer on the right to education". Right to Education project. Retrieved 2009-02-21.

·    "Right to education – What is it? Availability". Right to Education project. Retrieved 2010-09-11.

·   http://www.ng.undp.org/mdgsngprogress.shtml

·   www.prohealthhmo.org

·   Oil doom and AIDS boom in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria.

·   http://www.rrh.org.au/publishedarticles/article_print_273.pdf

·   Access and Utilization of Modern Health Care Facilities in the Petroleum-producing Region of Nigeria: The Case of Bayelsa State By Andrew G. Onokerhoraye

·   Barnett, J. R. (1984), “Equity, Access and Resource Allocation: Planning Hospitals Services in New Zealand” Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 18, pp.981-989.

·   Burne, W. (1959), “Inequality, Inefficiency and Spatial Injustice” Annual Meeting , Association of American Geographers, Kansas (mimeo).

·   Christaller, W. (1966) (Translated by Baskin, C. W) The Central Places of Southern Germany, Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice Hall.

·   Mosely, M. J. (1979) Accessibility: the Rural Challenge, London: Methuen and Co.

·   Okafor, S. I. (1978), “Inequalities in the Distribution of Health Care Facilities in Nigeria”

·   Akhator, R.A. (ed.) Health and Disease in Tropical Africa: Geographical and Medical Viewpoints, London: Harwood.

·   Onokerhoraye, A.G (1970), Okitipupa as an Urban Centre in Okitipupa Division, Ibadan: Original Essay, Department of Geography, University of Ibadan.

·   Onokerhoraye, A. G. (1976a) “A Suggested Framework for the Provision of Health Facilities in Nigeria”, Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 10, 1976.

·   Onokerhoraye, A. G. (1976b), “A Conceptual Framework for the Location of Public Services in the Urban Areas of Developing Countries: The Nigerian Case”, Socio-Economic Planning Science, Vol. 10, pp. 237-240.

·   Onokerhoraye, A.G. (1978), “Spatial Aspects of the Health Care Problem in Nigeria: A Case Study of Kwara State”, Quarterly Journal of Administration, Vol.12, pp.241-255.

·   World Bank, (1995), Defining an Environmental Development Strategy for the Niger Delta, Washington: West African Department.

·   World Health Organization (WHO), (1978), Almata-Ata 1978: Primary Health Care, Geneva: WHO.

·   The Oil Drums Of Blood and the Complications of NEITI’s 2005 Audit: Unearthing The Shadows - NDEBUMOG

·   NDEBUMOG - MEMORANDUM ON THE PETROLEUM INDUSTRY BILL (PIB) 2009

·   Assessment of Poverty Reduction Strategies of the Niger Delta Regional Master Plan – WARDC

·   The Petroleum Industry Bill (2009) and the Issue of Transparency and Accountability in the Extractive Sector – George Hill Anthony (NDEBUMOG)

·         Conscience and History: My Story, 2013

·         Fighting Corruption Through Best Procurement Practices (BPP 2009)

·         Complaints Procedure under the Public Procurement Act

·         Professionalizing Procurement in a Changing World, by Margaret Rose

·         Edo State Public Procurement Act

·         Public Procurement Act, 2007

·         NDEBUMOG Regional Budget Library

·         Gender-responsive Budgeting & Parliament: A handbook for parliamentarians 2008

·         en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Right_to_Health

·         Malaria Control Programme -  http://riversstatemoh.gov.ng/programmes/malaria-control-programme/

·         http://riversstatemoh.gov.ng/programmes/national-programme-on-immunisation/

·         BPP’s Public Procurement Journal 18th & 19TH edition April-September 2013.

 

 

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